The City of Madrid Madrid is the capital of the Community of Madrid and Spain. It is the largest city in the country with 3.2 million inhabitants, although if we include the population of the Madrid metropolitan area, it reaches 6.3 million. Madrid is the 5th most important leading centre of commerce in Europe.  


The City of Brunswick Brunswick (Braunschweig) is the second largest city in Lower Saxony, Germany, with 250,000 inhabitants. The region of Brunswick is one of the leading European regions with regards to spending on research and development. The city prides itself to be a hub of versatile industry expertise, including technology and innovation, energy and


The City of Nice With 344,000 inhabitants, Nice is the 5th biggest city in France. Nice is situated in the French Riviera and is one of the top tourist destinations in Europe, attracting around 5 million visitors per year. The Metropole Nice Côte d’Azur, an intercommunal structure made up of 49 cities around Nice, has


The metro network in Berlin Currently, the Berlin metro network consists of 146 km double track, 10 metro lines and 144 stations. The average distance between two stations is 0.8 km. In respect to thermal comfort, waste heat is a concern for the operator, passengers and working staff in underground transport systems. OPES aims to